William Hogarth and prints (art from 18th century perspective and back again)
Sinister Smallpox and Gin Lane
Can *legislation* prevent *debauchery*? Mother gin and public health in 18th-century England
The "gin epidemic" of 1720 to 1751 in England was the first time that government intervened in a systematic fashion to regulate and control sales of alcohol. The epidemic therefore provides an opportunity to gauge the effects of multiple legislative interventions over time. Toward that end, we employed time series analysis in conjunction with qualitative methodologies to test the interplay of multiple independent variables, including real wages and taxes, on the consumption of distilled spirits from 1700 through 1771.
The results showed that each of the 3 major gin acts was successful in the short term only, consistent with the state's limited resources for enforcement at the local level, and that in each instance consumption actually increased shortly thereafter. This was true even of the Gin Act of 1751, which, contrary to the assumptions of contemporaries and many historians, succeeded by accident rather than by design. The results also suggest that the epidemic followed the inverse U-shaped trajectory of more recent drug scares and that consumption declined only after the more deleterious effects of distilled spirits had been experienced by large numbers of people.
Read More: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.91.3.375
By the end of the 1720s, London was experiencing serious social problems because of
gin consumption. Many saw the main problem as one of price, for “Gin is sold very
cheap, so that People may get muddled with it for three half pence and for three
pence made quite Drunk even to Madness”. Soon consumers were pawning even their
clothes and furniture for drink.
Artist William Hogarth produced a number of works, including Gin Lane and Beer
Street, as well as his Four Stages of Cruelty as a response to the destruction of both
the economy and the morals of the poor wrought by gin.
First imported from the Netherlands in the 1690s, gin began to rival beer as the most popular drink in England. In 1689, the English government opened the distilling trade to all English people who paid certain taxes. Over the next sixty years, however, the government regulated the sale of gin with an inconsistent taxation policy. The ready availability and low cost of gin led to the a massive rise in consumption known as the Gin Craze; by the 1730s, consumption in London had risen to the equivalent of 2 pints per week per Londoner.
Politicians and religious leaders argued that gin drinking encouraged laziness and criminal behaviour. In 1729, Parliament passed a Gin Act which increased the retail tax to 5 shillings per gallon. With the Gin Act 1736 the government imposed a high licence fee for gin retailers and a 20 shillings retail tax per gallon. These actions were unpopular with the working-classes and resulted in riots in London in 1743. The license fee and tax were lowered significantly within a few years.
William Hogarth, Beer Street and Gin Lane, two prints
Published in London, England, AD 1751
Negligence, poverty and death in London
Hogarth claimed that these prints were 'calculated to reform some reigning Vices peculiar to the lower Class of People'. They were published in support of a campaign directed against gin drinking among London's poor. Consumption of cheap spirits by the poor had soared in the early eighteenth century, with dire social consequences. The campaign was led by Hogarth's friend the novelist Henry Fielding (1707-54), who was chief magistrate for Westminster from 1749 to 1754. It was successful: an act against gin was passed later in 1751. This prevented retail sale of gin by the shops that sold normal household necessities, and was effective in curbing the evils of spirit drinking.
Beer Street celebrates the virtues of the mildly intoxicating traditional national drink. Beer inspires artists and refreshes tradesmen and labourers. It can be drunk safely on rooftops. The newfangled foreign spirit gin, however, inspires violence and careless inebriation. A gin-sodden mother is oblivious to her child's fall. Addiction to spirits leads to negligence, poverty and death.
The verses were written by Hogarth's friend James Towneley to make plain the meaning of the images. The prints were too expensive for the urban poor, but would have been within the means of the middle-class electorate. The horrors of Gin Lane provided imagery for propaganda against alcohol for another hundred years.
R. Paulson, Hogarths graphic works, 3rd edition (London, The Print Room, 1989)
D. Bindman, Hogarth and his times: serious, exh. cat. (London, The British Museum Press, 1997)
M. Hallett, The spectacle of difference: g (New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1999)
R. Paulson, Hogarth, vol 2 (Cambridge, Lutterworth, 1991-93)
How we conquered the deadly smallpox virus - Simona Zompi
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). The infectious agent responsible is Treponema pallidum, a type of bacterium. Anyone who comes into direct contact with the bacteria via an open sore, typically during sexual contact, can become infected. Syphilis symptoms can be broken down into four stages; in the first two stages, the disease is most contagious. In the later stages it is not as easy to pass on but this is when it causes the most damage to your body.
Syphilis symptoms are wide ranging, and many of them imitate other diseases. It’s also possible that you may not experience any syphilis symptoms at all, or you may only notice some of them. Even if you don’t display any syphilis symptoms, this doesn’t mean that your infection is not contagious and won’t progress to later stages. If you experience any of the syphilis symptoms outlined in the four stages below, or you think you may have been in close and intimate contact with someone who has syphilis, you should visit your doctor without delay.
This article on syphilis symptoms is by Kathryn Senior, a freelance journalist who writes health, medical, biological, and pharmaceutical articles for national and international journals, newsletters and web sites.
Primary stage syphilis symptoms
One of the first primary syphilis symptoms is an open sore or ulcer, known as a chancre that can appear on the cervix, genitals, tongue, lips, fingertips or throat. This sore can appear anywhere from 10 and 90 days after infection but usually appears around three weeks afterwards. The chancre may also appear inside the body and may not cause any pain, so you may not notice it at all.
Although the sore usually heals in a few weeks, this doesn’t mean you’re no longer infectious and so you should still seek treatment even if it heals on its own. In addition to a chancre, another one of the most common primary syphilis symptoms is enlarged lymph nodes in your groin. If you don’t seek treatment during this primary stage of the disease, there is around a 30 % chance that it will progress to the secondary stage.
Secondary stage syphilis symptoms
Secondary syphilis symptoms usually occur around three months after you’ve been infected with the disease. In the secondary stage, the main syphilis symptoms include a skin rash consisting of small brown sores together with flu-like symptoms. The rash usually appears on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, but can also appear anywhere else on your body. The flu-like secondary syphilis symptoms you may experience can include:
- Muscle and joint pain
- Sore throat
- Swollen lymph glands
You may also experience hair loss or weight loss. As with primary syphilis, these syphilis symptoms may disappear without treatment and your rash may heal within three to twelve weeks, but, again, this doesn’t mean you aren’t still infected. In some people, secondary syphilis symptoms can last for years. If and when these symptoms disappear, you will enter the latent stage of syphilis as described below. If you progress to this latent stage, you may still relapse back to the previous stage when secondary syphilis symptoms reappear.
Latent stage syphilis symptoms
If your syphilis infection is left untreated in the primary and secondary stages, the disease may move to the latent stage where you don’t experience any syphilis symptoms at all. When you reach this stage, you are not contagious and your syphilis symptoms may never return. However, this doesn’t mean you don’t still have the disease, and the bacteria may multiply in your body and progress to the tertiary stage of the disease. The latent stage of syphilis can last for any amount of time, from one year to 30 years.
Tertiary stage syphilis symptoms
Around 40 % of people who are in the latent stage of syphilis will progress to tertiary stage of the disease, which can last from a year to several decades. In this tertiary stage, syphilis symptoms are most pronounced and the disease causes the most damage to your body. At this stage, the bacteria starts affecting your major organs such as your heart, brain and liver as well as other body parts such as your eyes, bones, blood vessels, joints and nervous system. In tertiary syphilis, symptoms can become so severe that they can result in death. Common tertiary stage syphilis symptoms include:
- Uncoordinated muscle movements
- Heart problems
- Neurological problems
- Dementia and other mental disorders
- Lesions on various parts of your body including your skin, bones, cardiovascular system
soft sculpture installation by French artist Emilie Fai
Emilie Faïf is a visual designer. Born in 1976, she graduated from the École des Arts Appliqués Olivier de Serres and the École Nationale des Arts Décoratifs in Paris. She works with fabric to create dreamlike sculptures that address body as a landscape, landscape as a body. For over ten years, her collaborations with artists from the world of fashion – Isabel Marant, Tsumori Chisato, Hermes, Kenzo, Manuel Canovas –, design and theater enrich her diversified and prolific artistic activity.
Emilie Faïf’s universe has something natural and incongruous. Here, the obviousness is the evidence of the dreams; and dreams embrace reality’s colors and contours. Another reality where light exists without shadows, where the heavy becomes light, where vows never fall again. Then, there is the body, this continent we would like to be familiar with, which is maybe only a breath, gentle but a bit creepy. Body, dream, everything is there: the body in the dreams, the dreams beneath the skin, the fabric in-between. Emilie Faïf sculpts the fabric, but in a reverse way: because it all happens underneath, behind, in the back, somewhere inside.
Emilie Faïf performance
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. Smallpox localized in small blood vessels of the skin and in the mouth and throat. In the skin it resulted in a characteristic maculopapular rash a
balenciaga f/w 2012
Martin Creed, Work No. 329
kenzo by Mazarine
Chanel Spring 2015 Haute Couture
patternprints journal: MATERIAL PATTERNS IN TEXTILE SCULPTURE-INSTALLATIONS BY NICK CAVE
TIGHT Pinched denim at Faustine Steinmetz SS15 LFW
plant sleep (detail)
Comme des Garcons AW 2005
The Maidservant Dismissed, 18th century, according to Jean-Baptiste Greuze. Estampes et photographie, DC-8(A)-FOL, Bibliothèque nationale de France
Jean-Baptiste Greuze, French, 1725-1805, Indolence (La Paresseuse Italienne), 1757 Red heeled shoes
Broken Eggs Jean Baptiste Greuze (French, Tournus 1725–1805 Paris) Date: 1756 Medium: Oil on canvas Dimensions: 28 3/4 x 37 in. (73 x 94 cm) Classification: Paintings Credit Line: Bequest of William K. Vanderbilt, 1920 Accession Number: 20.155.8
A Poor Old Woman Anne Claude Philippe de Tubières, Comte de Caylus (French, 1692–1765) Artist: After Edme Bouchardon (French, Chaumont 1698–1762 Paris) Date: 1742 Medium: Etching with some engraving
Britishmuseum. "William Hogarth, Beer Street and Gin Lane, Two Prints."Britishmuseum. Britishmuseum, n.d. Web.
"Sos03.com." Syphilis Symptoms. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2015.